The Agence Française de Développement (AFD) funds, supports and accelerates the transitions to a fairer and more sustainable world.
Focusing on climate, biodiversity, peace, education, urban development, health and governance, AFD carries out more than 4,000 projects in France’s overseas departments and territories and another 115 countries. In this way, AFD contributes to the commitment of France and French people to support the sustainable development goals.
AFD Research Papers are intended to rapidly disseminate findings of ongoing work and mainly target researchers, students and the wider academic community. They cover the full range of AFD work, including: economic analysis, economic theory, policy analysis, engineering sciences, sociology, geography and anthropology. AFD Research Papers and other publications are not mutually exclusive.
The opinions expressed in Research papers are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the position of AFD. It is therefore published under the sole responsibility of its author(s).