CAIRN-INT.INFO : International Edition

1Hybrid entrepreneurs are persons receiving wages from employment and engaging in self-employment activity at the same time [1]. While they face similar challenges as self-employed persons or entrepreneurs, they are said to operate under less risky conditions [2]. Hybrid entrepreneurs enjoy the security of a regular income. At the same time, they gain experience in self-employment and build a better foundation to decide if they want to extend their “part-time” self-employment to full-time or go back to full employment—or remain in the hybrid status. As entrepreneurial experience shapes entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intentions [3], supporting hybrid entrepreneurship provides a promising way to foster entrepreneurship—especially for more risk-averse people [2].

2This summary sets out to report on the current public opinion on entrepreneurship based on the results of the Amway Global Entrepreneurship Report 2018 (AGER) [4]. The report focuses on people’s own ambitions to start a business, evaluations of their beliefs about themselves, the environment to start a business, and how they picture their business. Finally, the report asks respondents with which aspect of the start-up process they need most help. The results may help researchers and policy makers to better understand the situation in their countries as well as identify and interpret difference between countries. The findings aim to foster discussions about different forms of entrepreneurship and how to support them.

Box 1: Amway Global Entrepreneurship Report 2018

The Amway Global Entrepreneurship Report (AGER) is conducted annually study by Amway ( on the public opinion on entrepreneurship. The AGER 2018 comprises data from 44 countries around the world. The countries are Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Colombia, Croatia, Czech, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, the USA, and Vietnam. The service provider Gesellschaft für Konsumforschung ( collected representative data to cover the whole population in the surveyed countries. For eight countries, respondents were selected from metropolitan areas. These countries are China, Colombia, India, Mexico, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. The full sample comprises 48,998 respondents aged 14 to 99. Data was collected from 16 April to 16 July 2017. The AGER 2018 and earlier issues are available on

The Entrepreneurial Spirit

3The intention to start a business or to become self-employed is an important driver for becoming active when confronted with an entrepreneurial opportunity [5]. This applies to people who decide to earn their income fully from entrepreneurial activity as well as to hybrid entrepreneurs. Both have to adjust their work arrangements and evaluate if they want to seize an entrepreneurial opportunity.

4Research made ample use of the theory of planned behavior [6] to evaluate entrepreneurial intentions [7]. In line with this research, the AGER introduced the Amway Entrepreneurial Spirit Index (AESI) building on the theory of planned behavior. The index incorporates three dimensions: Desirability, Feasibility, and Stability against social pressure [8].

5Across the 44 surveyed countries, the AESI reaches a value of 47. In detail [9]:

6■ Desirability: 49 percent of the respondents consider starting a business desirable.

7■ Feasibility: 43 percent state that they have the necessary skills and resources to start a business.

8■ Stability against social pressure: 50 percent would not let family or friends stop them from starting a business.

9The results show differences between demographic groups [10]. Men show higher approval rates than women for the AESI and all of its dimension. The desire to start a business decreases with increasing age [11]. Feasibility is highest among the respondents aged 35 to 49. And finally, stability is lower for respondents over 50 years, while the two younger age groups reach similar approval rates. Compared to the last report in 2016, the AESI slightly decreased from 50 to 47 [12]. While the approval of stability remained at a similar level, feasibility shows a slight decrease of 3 percent and desirability a stronger decrease by 7 percent.

10Feasibility shows the lowest approval rate among the three dimensions. For some people, hybrid entrepreneurship may reduce doubts in feasibility. People who are uncertain about their capabilities may test their business ideas under less insecure conditions and gain experience with self-employed work [1]. Further, if the social environment of a potential entrepreneur is cautious, starting with hybrid entrepreneurship may calm people who are close to the entrepreneur and breed support in the endeavor. Similarly, the concept of hybrid entrepreneurship may motivate potential entrepreneurs who are sensitive to risky decisions and render this type of self-employment in a more desirable light [2].

11Building on the prior results, the AGER aims to identify beliefs that relate to the AESI findings. The AGER 2018 therefore asked respondents in more detail about their opinions on framework conditions for entrepreneurship and how they think about different aspects about themselves.

Attitudes towards entrepreneurship

12The willingness to become an entrepreneur depends on several factors [13]. Two groups of such factors were included in the AGER survey: The evaluation of framework conditions for entrepreneurship and peoples’ self-evaluations about personal aspects.

13Similar to full-time entrepreneurs, framework conditions depict important determinants for hybrid entrepreneurs in the decision to start with self-employed work. Therefore, the AGER aims to highlight how satisfied people are with framework conditions in their countries.

14■ 48 percent think that the technology available in their countries is supportive of starting and running businesses.

15■ 40 percent are convinced that the education system teaches people the necessary skills for entrepreneurship.

16■ 36 percent evaluate the economic conditions in their countries as beneficial for starting and running a business.

17■ 34 percent think that rules and regulations are easy to follow.

18■ 33 percent state that dealing with taxes are manageable for entrepreneurs.

19As research suggests [5], respondents who think positively about the framework conditions tend to approve with the AESI dimension, especially with the desirability and feasibility. There appear to be country-specific differences between demographic groups, but no overall pattern applying across countries.

20The results on the framework conditions show that, depending on the factor, half to two thirds of the respondents do not perceive the surveyed framework conditions beneficial for starting a business. If a potential entrepreneur perceives framework conditions as impediments, “testing” self-employment in part-time may provide a saver setting to deal with the challenges.

Box 2. Results for the Amway Entrepreneurial Spirit Index

tableau im1
Country AESI Desirability Feasibility Stability Austria 29 26% 28% 35% Belgium 41 37% 38% 47% Brazil 56 66% 53% 50% Bulgaria 22 24% 19% 24% Canada 50 44% 59% 46% China 80 86% 82% 72% Colombia 56 83% 53% 33% Croatia 34 26% 34% 41% Czech 49 54% 36% 57% Denmark 51 58% 48% 47% Estonia 47 52% 41% 47% Finland 50 43% 42% 65% France 36 23% 38% 47% Germany 31 24% 29% 39% Great Britain 39 32% 46% 38% Greece 44 41% 30% 60% Hungary 35 33% 23% 49% India 81 91% 74% 78% Ireland 44 39% 41% 52% Italy 41 41% 36% 45% Japan 25 38% 11% 27% Korea 39 44% 36% 38% Latvia 50 50% 40% 61% Lithuania 55 76% 33% 57% Malaysia 72 81% 63% 72% Mexico 58 70% 45% 60% Netherlands 51 44% 51% 58% Norway 46 41% 55% 41% Poland 27 22% 26% 33% Portugal 53 56% 49% 53% Romania 29 23% 20% 43% Russia 32 39% 21% 36% Slovakia 40 42% 30% 49% Slovenia 53 52% 52% 56% South Africa 71 71% 69% 72% Spain 44 42% 45% 47% Sweden 59 61% 56% 58% Switzerland 45 41% 44% 49% Taiwan 43 58% 35% 36% Thailand 66 65% 63% 71% Turkey 48 50% 41% 53% Ukraine 21 21% 15% 26% USA 54 57% 60% 46% Vietnam 84 92% 77% 83%

Box 2. Results for the Amway Entrepreneurial Spirit Index

Box 3. Overview for the results of the AGER 2018

tableau im2
Overall Gender Age groups Female Male < 35 35 – 49 >=50 Amway Entrepreneurial Spirit Index AESI 47% 44% 51% 52% 50% 41% Desirability 49% 45% 53% 59% 51% 39% Feasibility 43% 38% 48% 44% 48% 39% Stability 50% 48% 52% 54% 52% 45% Framework Conditions Taxes 33% 32% 35% 34% 34% 32% Rules & Regulations 34% 34% 34% 37% 34% 31% Education 40% 40% 40% 41% 39% 40% Technology 48% 46% 49% 50% 48% 46% Economy 36% 34% 37% 36% 36% 35% Personal Beliefs Idea generation 52% 48% 56% 58% 54% 45% Raising capital 38% 35% 42% 40% 40% 35% Risk taking 47% 43% 50% 54% 47% 40% Commitment 57% 54% 59% 63% 58% 50% Social Support 64% 63% 64% 70% 66% 57% Need for Support Idea generation 13% 13% 13% 14% 14% 12% Marketing 18% 18% 18% 18% 19% 17% Raising capital 23% 23% 23% 25% 24% 21% Hiring people 15% 14% 16% 15% 14% 15% Finances, taxes 20% 20% 20% 21% 21% 18%

Box 3. Overview for the results of the AGER 2018

Notes: Aggregates results overall as well as for demographic groups across all countries. See the text for descriptions of the variables.

21Besides external influences, individual beliefs about starting a business are important drivers of entrepreneurial intentions. On this basis, the AGER provides insights on people’s opinions on entrepreneurship. The report focuses on five aspects relevant to the start-up process: idea generation, raising capital, risk taking, commitment, and social support.

22■ 64 percent are convinced that their family and friends would be supportive if they were to start a business.

23■ 57 percent think that they would be committed to their business idea and sacrifice their free time.

24■ 52 percent state that they can develop business ideas.

25■ 47 percent would be willing to take the risk of failing.

26■ 38 percent state they would be able to raise money for realizing their business idea.

27Women and men expect similar support from family and friends. For the remaining aspects, men show higher approval rates than women. As for desirability, the approval with the five aspects decreases with increasing age. While respondents who approve of the five beliefs also tend to agree with the AESI dimensions, some details stand out. More respondents who state they can develop business ideas and know how to raise money tend to approve of the feasibility. People willing to take risks and sacrifice free time are more inclined to the desire to start a business. Finally, approval with stability against social pressure is more likely among respondents who think of family and friends being supportive.

28A majority of the respondents are positive about their own entrepreneurial attitudes. Yet, when considering aspects with lower approval rates, they relate directly or indirectly to failing. Results from prior issues of the AGER show that the fear of failing represents an obstacle for starting a business for a majority of the respondents [14]. Trying hybrid entrepreneurship allows people to reduce the risk of failing. Going back to full employment might not even be perceived as failure. In turn, financial, personal, and social consequences [15] of exiting hybrid entrepreneurship should be notably weaker.

Support in the start-up process

29Irrespective of the type of entrepreneurship, the start-up process comprises different phases and necessary capabilities [16]. The phases comprise searching for business opportunities, planning and market research, gathering resources and convincing people, and finally running the business. The AGER seeks insights into how people think about the capabilities related to these phases. For the report, five capabilities were selected: Business idea generation, marketing, raising money, hiring the right people, and dealing with finances, taxes, and regulations. Respondents were asked to indicate with which aspect of the start-up process they would need most support. The results are:

30■ 23 percent: support with raising money for the business idea.

31■ 20 percent: support with dealing with finances, taxes, and regulations.

32■ 18 percent: support with identifying customers and marketing.

33■ 15 percent: support with hiring the right people.

34■ 13 percent: support with creating a business idea.

35The results show no overall pattern for differences between women and men or between age groups.

36As a conclusion, the concept of hybrid entrepreneurship provides a promising way to overcome barriers in the decision to become self-employed and start a business. For a large majority of people, fear of failure constitutes an obstacle to start a business [14]. Hybrid entrepreneurship allows potential entrepreneurs to gain entrepreneurial experience with less uncertainty and less severe consequences in the case of failure. Similar to entrepreneurship education [17], hybrid entrepreneurship should help people to decide whether entrepreneurship suits them [1]. In fostering entrepreneurship, hybrid entrepreneurship deserves more attention and recognition.


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    Raffie, J. & Feng. J (2014). Should I quit my Job? A hybrid path to entrepreneurship. Academy of Management Journal, 57(4), 936-963.
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    Zhao, H., Seibert, S. E., & Hills, G. E. (2005). The mediation role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1265-1272.
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    See Box 1 Data for descriptives on the data collection.
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    Krueger, N. F. & Brazeal, D. V. (1994). Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 18(3), 91–104.
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    E.g. Krueger, N. F, Reilly, M. D., & Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5-6), 411-432.
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    The AESI is built from the mean of its dimensions and ranges from 0 to 100 (percent) depending on the approval with the dimensions. The dimensions are Desirability: whether respondents desire to start a business; Feasibility: whether respondents feel prepared to start a business; Stability against social pressure: whether respondents would not let their social environment, such as family and friends, dissuade them from starting a business.
  • [9]
    Box 2 shows the results at the country level.
  • [10]
    For an overview of all results see Box 3.
  • [11]
    Respondents are assigned to three age groups: under 35 years, 35 to 49 years, and over 50 years.
  • [12]
    AGER 2016: Desirability: 56 percent; Feasibility: 46 percent; Stability: 50 percent.
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    Krueger, N. F., Reilly, M. D., & Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5-6), 411-432.
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    AGER 2015: 70 percent of the respondents stated that fear of failure is an obstacle to starting a business.
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    Ucbasaran, D., Shepherd, D. A., Lockett, A., & Lyon S. J. (2013). Life after business failure: The process and consequences of business failure for entrepreneurs. Journal of Management, 39(1), 163-202.
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    McGee, J. E., Peterson, M., Mueller, S. L., & Sequeira, J. M. (2009). Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy: Refining the Measure. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(4), 965-988.
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Marcus A. Drescher
Dr. Marcus A. Drescher received his PhD from Technical University Munich. His research focuses on entrepreneurship and team processes. Since 2013, he serves as a scientific advisor to the Amway Global Entrepreneurship Report. Currently, he serves as a business and scientific consultant.
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