2 Russia provided 100% of gas supplies to Estonia and Finland, 99.5% to Bulgaria, 81% to Poland, 80% to Austria, 77% to Hungary, 53% to Germany, 33% to Italy, 7.6% to France and only 0.5% and 0.1% of gas imports for Spain and Ireland respectively. 
3 Russian gas is delivered mainly through four pipelines: Nord Stream 1, which runs under the Baltic Sea, is essential for Central Europe and especially Germany. Ukraine transit is important for Italy and the Balkan countries, while the Yamal pipeline runs through Poland and Belarus and partly supplies the Netherlands and Belgium. Turkstream, which runs under the Black Sea and through Turkey, supplies both the Balkans and Hungary.
We use Eurostat 2019 data for imports and exports of solid fuels, oil and Gross Domestic Consumption,and Bruegel 2021 data for the share of Russian gas imports, due to significant gaps in the Eurostat data.
We use Eurostat 2019 data for imports and exports of solid fuels, oil and Gross Domestic Consumption,and Bruegel 2021 data for the share of Russian gas imports, due to significant gaps in the Eurostat data.The dependency ratio of an input (e.g. gas) is the ratio of Russian imports to total imports of that input, weighted by the share of net imports of that input to Gross Domestic Consumption. The ratio that is mapped is the sum of the ratios for gas, solid fuels and oil products, which account for the bulk of Russian imports into Europe.
4 Since the start of the Russia invasion of Ukraine on February 24, 2022, five European countries - Bulgaria, Poland, Finland, Denmark and the Netherlands - have been cut off from Russian gas. Germany, Italy, France, Austria, Slovakia and the Czech Republic all had their gas supplies reduced.
5 Transit through the Polish section of the Yamal pipeline was completely stopped (Chart e, page 27).