“Ambivalence” is the quality that best describes China’s relationship to non-governmental organizations (NGOs), whether these be Chinese or international. The latitude given to NGOs by the state party has varied a great deal in recent decades, in accordance with political tendencies which have alternated between openness and closure. Although they were tolerated to some extent in the 1980s and 2000s because their relation with the state was thought to be mutually beneficial, the arrival in power of Xi Jinping in 2013 led to a sweeping crackdown on them. Paradoxically, this state of tension has been accompanied by a certain internationalization, in which the international ambitions of the state party are having an increasing impact on the activities of NGOs.
- non-governmental organization (NGO)
- government-organized non-governmental organization (GONGO)
- social organizations
- governmental control