In the early 19th century, increasing numbers of hamlet schools were set up in the former Duchy of Savoy. Part of the mountain socio-economic system and mainly financed by private funds, these schools were still considered public institutions by the Sardinian monarchy. This was not the case in France, where hamlet schools were mostly established as private schools. After 1860, their incorporation into the French school system created difficulties for the French government, which wanted to extend access to education but contain public spending. They were assigned several statuses prior to the passing of the law of 1867 which, inspired by the Savoyard example, legalised these schools. Although the government planned to rationalise their establishment, financial logic and popular demand for education led to the retention of this local public education service. However, the way in which the schools were reflected in ministerial statistics invites us to question their growth in number and more generally that of primary education expenditure at the end of the Second Empire.
- school consortiums