CAIRN-INT.INFO : International Edition

Relying on the legacy of Durkheim, this article explores how the essential bonds that constitute society can be weakened and thus generate anxiety: the parent-subsidiary relationship, affinities, organic participation, or citizenship relationship. Each of these links provides protection and recognition to the individuals inside the groups and, through them, to the social system they belong to. Individuals can experience a feeling of being obliged to conform to social standards that also give them a feeling of freedom, because social attachment connects them to the vital streams of society. But they can lose this contact in different social situations: when the bonds are broken, when they are weakened, but also when they become oppressive. This occurs when protection without recognition is performed, just as can occur in the world of work.


  • Attachment
  • social bonds
  • anxieties
  • social weakness
  • oppression
Serge Paugam
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