How is one to define Ravaisson’s Spiritualism? A reading of the report on La Philosophie en France au xixe siècle sheds light on that question. The cosmic dynamics of spiritualization shows that the mind is the only true reality. Ravaisson offers a system of generalized substitution: intelligence, imagination, will, memory, perception are not separated by watertight partitions, but can replace one another. Ravaisson’s Spiritualism does not claim that matter and mind are placed side by side but calls for the understanding of mind as the principle to be found inside all realities, giving life to matter itself: mind is present everywhere, in various degrees.
- internal principle