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This conclusive article opens up a perspective on the limitations of French social protection and the reforms needed. The authors note several limitations: failure to achieve unification of the legislation, lack of readability of founding concepts and of managerial policy, predominance of financial strategies in the short term and difficulties in carrying out reform. The authors take up a position on each current debate: between financial balance or deficit, replacement of contributions out of salaries by the “Contribution sociale généralisée” (general social tax on income), the twenty-first century social contribution, and social vat. They discuss the adaptation of social governance, especially by a territorial reorganization, the pursuit of pension reform, a unification of the organization and rearrangement of women’s rights and those of men. The merger of health insurance organisms and the pursuit of control over health costs, family allowances that attain an equilibrium between horizontal and vertical redistribution so as not to be a disincentive to formal employment, a new order for protection from disability and dependency, and the measured activation of social expenditure. The article makes suggestions on questions that have been neglected in practice: social democracy and the contribution of benefit recipients, housing, youth, European, and international solidarity.


  • perspectives
  • social protection
  • social benefits
  • finances
  • contribution
  • housing
  • Europe
  • international
Michel Laroque
Marc de Montalembert
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